Tuesday, May 25, 2010

ROBINSON CRUSOE THEME

Courage and Determination
Robinson Crusoe’s parents want him to become a lawyer but Crusoe is
determined to become a sailor. He leaves home without his parents’
blessing and works hard to become a good sailor.
He shows great courage when he escapes from his Turkish master.
He ensures he has guns and food before he escapes.
When he is shipwrecked on a deserted island, Crusoe overcomes great
obstacles to survive. He struggles alone in order to carry food, equipment
and other materials from the ship so that he can make a life for himself until
he is rescued. He builds two homes, a raft and a canoe. He is also able to
make tools and plant enough food for himself and his companions.
He shows great courage when he saves Friday, Friday’s father, the Spaniard
and the second English sea captain. He does all this
at the risk of being captured and eaten by the cannibals!

Importance of Hard Work
It is important to work hard as this makes you disciplined and successful
in life. Robinson Crusoe is a good example of a man who is fearless,
positive and hard-working. Instead of complaining about his fate,
he looks at the situation and does what is needed to make the situation
better. For example, he salvages useful items from the sinking ship,
makes a canoe and safe shelters for himself, and hunt for food.
He creates a comfortable life for himself and is able to survive on
the island for twenty-eight years.

Friendship and Loyalty
Humans need friendship and good relationships with others.
When Crusoe runs away to London, he makes friends with
a ship’s captain who grows to like and trust him. He teaches
Crusoe mathematics and navigation until Crusoe becomes a good sailor.
Crusoe is a friendly and sociable person. The captain invites
Crusoe to go with him to Guinea, thus starting Crusoe’s involvement
in business and sailing. Crusoe also makes many friends while farming in Brazil.
When Crusoe gets shipwrecked on the island, he is desolate
and miserable. Deprived of human company, he finds comfort
and companionship with two dogs he rescues from the shipwreck,
the parrot and the cats.
During his twenty-fifth year on the island, he manages to
save a savage from a group of cannibals who land on the island.
This man is so grateful that he wants to be Crusoe’s slave.
However, Crusoe prefers him to be a friend. Crusoe teaches
him to eat animal flesh, speak English and share his religious beliefs.
Friday, as Crusoe calls him, becomes his faithful companion and friend.
Crusoe also becomes a friend to the Spanish and English mutineers
who were left on the island. He solves their disputes
and helps them to form friendships with each other.

Relationship with Nature
Humans are part of Nature and, therefore, should live and work
harmony with Nature. Crusoe is a man at peace with Nature.
He loves the sea and the outdoors. So when he is marooned
on the island and finds himself alone with only Nature
as his companion, he adapts easily.
He is quick to use things from Nature to help him survive.
He uses the trees and plants to build himself a canoe and
homes, ant to provide him with food.



Sub-Themes / Minor Themes

Gratitude
Friday is dedicated to Crusoe, the man who saves
him from being eaten by the cannibals.
The second English ship’s captain is grateful
to Crusoe for rescuing him from the mutineers.

Power and Control
Crusoe lives on the deserted island for twenty-eight years.
He makes it his comfortable home. He has control over Nature there.
During his rescue of Friday, he kills a cannibal. A grateful Friday
is willing to be his slave. Crusoe teaches Friday to speak in
English and about his religious beliefs. Thus, Crusoe has power over Friday.
Crusoe is viewed as owner and lord of the island. Crusoe is also
able to bring peace between the Spanish and the English
living on the island. He divides the island between the two
groups and this proves his control over the island and its inhabitants.

Faith in God
Robinson Crusoe has great faith in God. He does not give up
hope when he is shipwrecked and finds himself all alone
on a deserted island. His faith that God will sustain him
through the many trials in life keeps him going.
Crusoe says, ‘All… God for an answer.” (p. 41, para. 3)
Crusoe’s strong belief in God is also seen when he teaches
Friday about the goodness and power that comes with having faith in God.

Good versus Evil
Robinson Crusoe shows that good triumphs over
evil when he helps Friday to escape from the cannibals.
Crusoe also teaches Friday about God’s
goodness and how it triumphs over the Devil’s evilness.
The mutineers who are disloyal to their captain are
finally overcome by the ‘good’ forces of Crusoe and Friday

Tuesday, May 11, 2010

SYNONYM

Since 100 examples is a bit demanding, I'll give you 50 synonyms from 10 words.

The words we'll be using:
Small, Soft, Wet, Weak, Long, Create, Hold, Run, Jump, Smile

Synonyms of Small
Little, Mini, short, dimunitive, tiny, fine, petite

Synonyms of Soft
Downy, silky, dull, low, weak, spongy, limp, malleable

Synonyms of Wet
Moist, watery, soppy, soggy, drenched, awashed

Synonyms of Weak
Wimpy, sapped, faint, soft, flimsy

Synonyms of Long
Elongated, lengthy, outstretched, extended

Synonyms of Create
Cause, make, construct

Synonyms of Hold
Cling, Clench, Wait, Grip, grasp, clasp

Synonyms of Run
Dash, Gallop, Sprint, Scuttle

Synonyms of Jump
Leap, Bounce, Hop, Vault, Spring

Synonyms of Smile
Beam, Grin
Analogy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit
Jump to: navigation, search
Analogy (from Greek "ἀναλογία" - analogia, "proportion"[1][2]) is a cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular to another particular, as opposed to deduction, induction, and abduction, where at least one of the premises or the conclusion is general. The word analogy can also refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not necessarily, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy.


Niels Bohr's model of the atom made an analogy between the atom and the solar system.Analogy plays a significant role in problem solving, decision making, perception, memory, creativity, emotion, explanation and communication. It lies behind basic tasks such as the identification of places, objects and people, for example, in face perception and facial recognition systems. It has been argued that analogy is "the core of cognition".[3] Specific analogical language comprises exemplification, comparisons, metaphors, similes, allegories, and parables, but not metonymy. Phrases like and so on, and the like, as if, and the very word like also rely on an analogical understanding by the receiver of a message including them. Analogy is important not only in ordinary language and common sense, where proverbs and idioms give many examples of its application, but also in science, philosophy and the humanities. The concepts of association, comparison, correspondence, mathematical and morphological homology, homomorphism, iconicity, isomorphism, metaphor, resemblance, and similarity are closely related to analogy. In cognitive linguistics, the notion of conceptual metaphor may be equivalent to that of analogy.

Analogy has been studied and discussed since classical antiquity by philosophers, scientists and lawyers. The last few decades have shown a renewed interest in analogy, most notable in cognitive science.

ingglish

An idiom (Latin: idioma, “special property”, f. Greek: ἰδίωμα - idiōma, “special feature, special phrasing”, f. Greek: ἴδιος - idios, “one’s own”) is an expression, word, or phrase that has a figurative meaning that is comprehended in regard to a common use of that expression that is separate from the literal meaning or definition of the words of which it is made.[1] There are estimated to be at least 25,000 idiomatic expressions in American English.[2]
In linguistics, idioms are usually presumed to be figures of speech contradicting the principle of compositionality; yet the matter remains debated. John Saeed defines an “idiom” as words collocated that became affixed to each other until metamorphosing into a fossilised term.[3] This collocation — words commonly used in a group — redefines each component word in the word-group and becomes an idiomatic expression. The words develop a specialized meaning as an entity, as an idiom. Moreover, an idiom is an expression, word, or phrase whose sense means something different from what the words literally imply. When a speaker uses an idiom, the listener might mistake its actual meaning, if he or she has not heard this figure of speech before.[4] Idioms usually do not translate well; in some cases, when an idiom is translated into another language, either its meaning is changed or it is meaningless.



In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun, giving more information about the noun or pronoun's referent. Collectively, adjectives form one of the traditional English eight parts of speech, though linguists today distinguish adjectives from words such as determiners that also used to be considered adjectives.
Not all languages have adjectives, but most, including English, do. (English adjectives include big, old, and tired, among many others.) Those that do not, typically use words of another part of speech, often verbs, to serve the same semantic function; for example, such a language might have a verb that means "to be big", and would use a construction analogous to "big-being house" to express what English expresses as "big house". Even in languages that do have adjectives, one language's adjective might not be another's; for example, while English uses "to be hungry" (hungry being an adjective), French uses "avoir faim" (literally "to have hunger", hunger being a noun), and where Hebrew uses the adjective "זקוק" (zaqūq, roughly "in need of"), English uses the verb "to need".
. idiomatic expression - an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up
phrasal idiom, set phrase, phrase, idiom
locution, saying, expression - a word or phrase that particular people use in particular situations; "pardon the expression"
ruralism, rusticism - a rural idiom or expression
in the lurch - in a difficult or vulnerable position; "he resigned and left me in the lurch"
like clockwork - with regularity and precision; "the rocket launch went off like clockwork"

Thursday, May 6, 2010

FOREST TYPES
Malaysia sebagai sebuah negara yang terletak di kawasan iklim khatulistiwa diliputi oleh lapisan hutan yang tebal. Malaysia as a country located in the equatorial climate, covered by layers of thick forest. Kebanyakan daripada tanah yang ditumbuhi hutan telah digazet sebagai Hutan Simpan Kekal, Taman Negara dan Taman-Taman Negeri. Much of the land was gazetted as a forest ditumbuhi Permanent Forest Reserve, National Parks and State Parks. Kawasan-kawasan Hutan Perlindungan bertujuan untuk pemeliharaan pelbagai jenis pokok dan herba yang terdapat supaya kajian yang lebih lanjut dapat dijalankan oleh generasi masa kini dan akan datang. Areas intended for preservation of forest cover various types of trees and herbs that are so much more research can be conducted by the present generation and future. Secara umumnya hutan di Malaysia merupakan hasil proses sesaran hutan dari kawasan pantai, hutan bakau sehingga ke kawasan Hutan Dipterokap tanah Pamah, Hutan Dipterokap Tanah Tinggi dan Hutan Pergunungan. In general, forests in Malaysia is the result of the displacement of coastal forests, mangrove forests to the lowland dipterocarp forest, dipterocarp forest and Forest Highlands Mountains.

Hutan Pantai Coastal forest
Hutan ini didapati di sepanjang pantai negeri Sabah. This forest is found along the coast of Sabah. Hutan in semakin pupus disebabkan oleh skim pembangunan pantai yang semakin meningkat. Forests in the extinction caused by coastal development schemes is increasing. Spesies yang mendominasi hutan ini ialah Casuarina equisetifolia . The dominant species of this forest is Casuarina equisetifolia.

Hutan Bakau Mangrove Forest
Hutan ini meliputi sebahagian besar pantai barat dan pantai timur negeri Sabah. Rhizophora sp. Forest covers most of the west coast and east coast of Sabah. Rhizophora sp. dan Bruguiera sp. and Bruguiera sp. merupakan spesies yang banyak terdapat di kawasan ini. There are many species in this area. Spesies-spesies tersebut mula dieskport ke luar negeri sejak 1986. Species was first exported to foreign countries since 1986. Kayu bakau mempunyai kegunaan akhir yang berguna seperti sebagai kayu api, tiang-tiang rumah dan bahan bakar. Mangrove wood has a useful end-use as a wood fire, and pillars of houses and fuel. Kawasan Hutan Bakau penting untuk hidupan laut seperti ikan dan udang. Mangroves are important area for marine life such as fish and shrimp.

Hutan Nipah Nipah forests
Hutan ini biasanya didapati tumbuh bersama dengan vegetasi Hutan bakau. This forest is usually found growing along the mangrove forest vegetation. Hutan ini tumbuh di kawasan air tawar. This forest grows in fresh water. Daun nipah digunakan untuk membuat atap rumah manakala luahan digunakan sebagai minyak. Palm leaves used for roofing the house while the expression is used as fuel.

Hutan Transitional Transitional forest
Hutan ini didapati di antara Hutan Bakau, Hutan Nipah atau Hutan Paya dan dikenali sebagai Hutan Tanah Kering. This forest is found in the mangrove forest, swamp forest and Nipah or known as dry land forest. Spesies yang mendominasikan kawasan hutan ini adalah seperti Nibong ( Oncosperma sp.), palma, rotan dan merbau ( Intsia palembanica ). Species dominated the forest is like Mahakam (Oncosperma sp.), Palms, rattan and merbau (Intsia palembanica).

Hutan Paya Swamp Forest
Hutan ini terbentuk di antara Paya Gambut dan paya Air Tawar. Forest was formed in the Peat Swamp and Freshwater swamp. Paya Air Tawar menerima sumber air dari kawasan jeram dan sungai, manakala Paya Gambut menerima kelembapan dari air hujan. Freshwater marsh receives water from the rapids and rivers, while Peat Swamp receive moisture from rainfall.

Hutan Dipterokap Dipterocarp forest
Terminologi Dipterokap telah diambil sempena sifat fizikal buah yang mempunyai dua helai sayap. Dipterocarp terminology has been taken in conjunction with the physical properties of two pieces of fruit with wings. Jenis hutan ini mendominasikan hutan di negeri Sabah. This forest type dominated forests in Sabah. Hutan ini merupakan jenis Hutan Hujan Tropika yang terkenal dengan pokok yang mempunyai ketinggian paling tinggi berbanding dengan pokok dari hutan-hutan lain di dunia. This forest is a type of tropical rainforest tree, known for having the highest height than trees from other forests in the world. Spesies Dipterokap mempunyai banir besar dan pengeluaran bunga dan buah pada dahan. Banir dipterocarp species have large flower and fruit production on the branches. Hutan ini boleh didapati pada ketinggian 900m atas paras laut dan dibahagikan kepada 8 genera utama. Forest can be found at an altitude of 900m above sea level and is divided into eight major genera.

Hutan Riverine Riverine forest
Hutan ini banyak didapati di sepanjang sungai dengan kandungan spesies yang pelbagai. Abundant forest along the river to the content of the various species. Spesies untuk kayu balak adalah kurang didapati tetapi hutan ini penting sebagai penghalang banjir, pelindung tebing sungai dan mengurangkan hakisan tanah di kawasan tanah curam. Species for timber is not available, but the forests are important as a flood barrier, protecting the river banks and reduce soil erosion on steep lands.

Hutan Kerangas Forest Kerangas
Hutan ini ditumbuhi pokok-pokok yang berdiameter kecil, daun berkulit dan tanah hutan yang nipis dan berasid. Ditumbuhi forest trees of small diameter, leaf fodder, and forest land is thin and acidic. Tanah nipis tersebut biasanya dilapisi batu kapur. Land is usually coated with a thin limestone. Spesies kayu balak dan hidupan liar kurang didapati di kawasan hutan ini. Species of timber and wildlife not found in the forest.

Hutan Ultrabasic Forest Ultrabasic
Struktur hutan adalah berbeza dengan hutan lain. Forest structure is different from other forests. Pokok mempunyai silira dan daun yang kecil. Trees with small leaves and silira. Jenis hutan ini banyak didapati di kawasan berbukit, daerah Telupid. This forest type is found in many hilly areas, the district Telupid.

Hutan Pergunungan Mountain forests
Hutan ini wujud pada ketinggian yang melebihi 900m atas paras laut. This forest exists at an altitude of more than 900m above sea level. Jenis hutan ini boleh didapati di sepanjang Banjaran Crocker dan Gunung Kinabalu. This forest type can be found in the Crocker Range and Mount Kinabalu. Pokok Oaks dan Chestnuts banyak didapati kerana tahan dengan tiupan angin kencang dan keadaan cuaca yang ekstrim. Tree Oaks and Chestnuts many found as resistant to strong wind gust and extreme weather conditions.

Hutan Cloud Cloud Forest
Hutan ini wujud pada ketinggian yang melebihi 2200m atas paras laut dan tumbuh pada lapisan tanah yang nipis. This forest exists at an altitude of more than 2200m above sea level and grow in a thin layer of soil. Spesies ini boleh didapati di kawasan Gunung Kinabalu pada ketinggian melebihi 3300m atas paras laut. This species can be found in the area of Mount Kinabalu at an altitude of over 3300m above sea level. Spesies lumut dan tumbuhan Red Rhododendrons didapati tumbuh pada pokok rhu dan Dacrydium beccarri. Species of moss and plants found growing in the Red Rhododendrons and pine trees Dacrydium beccarri.

PENGKELASAN HUTAN FOREST CLASSIFICATION
Secara umumnya hutan di Malaysia telah dibahagikan kepada 7 kelas hutan untuk tujuan pengurusan dan pengawalan hutan. In general, forests in Malaysia have been divided into seven classes for the purpose of forest management and forest regulation.

Kelas I - Hutan Perlindungan Class I - Forest Protection
Hutan ini berfungsi sebagai kawasan tadahan air dan untuk kepentingan alam sekitar. These forests serve as catchment areas for the benefit of the environment. Kawasan hutan ini tidak boleh dibalak dan jumlah luas melebihi 99980 ha. Forests can not be harvested and the total area of more than 99,980 ha. di negeri Sabah. in Sabah.

Kelas II - Hutan Komersil Class II - Commercial Forest
Hutan ini boleh dibalak untuk membekalkan pelbagai jenis kayu keras yang berharga seperti Acacia mangium , Paraserianthes falcataria , Gmelina arborea dan Eucalyptus deglupta bagi kepentingan ekonomi negara. Forests can be harvested to provide a wide range of valuable hardwoods such as Acacia mangium, Paraserianthes falcataria, Gmelina arborea and Eucalyptus deglupta the interests of the economy. Pembalakan dijalankan selaras dengan prinsip Pengurusan Hutan Secara Berkekalan seperti yang digariskan dalam dasar Perhutanan Negara 1978 ( Pindaan 1992). Logging is carried out in accordance with the principles of sustainable forest management as outlined in the National Forest policy 1978 (Amendment 1992).

Kelas III - Hutan Domestik Class III - Domestic Forestry
Hasil hutan dari kawasan ini adalah untuk kegunaan tempatan sahaja. Forest produce from these areas is for domestic use only. Pengeluaran hasil hutan untuk tujuan komersil adalah tidak digalakkan. Production of forest products for commercial purposes is not recommended.

Kelas IV - Hutan Ameniti Class IV - Forest Amenities
Hutan ini berfungsi sebagai kawasan arboretum dan menyediakan kemudahan rekreasi. This forest serves as the Arboretum and recreational facilities. Spesies exotic kadangkala ditanam untuk meningkatkan nilai ameniti kawasan hutan. Exotic species are sometimes planted to enhance the amenity value of forests.

Kelas V - Hutan Bakau Class V - Mangrove Forest
Hutan ini berfungsi untuk membekalkan kayu bakau terutamanya Rhizophora sp. Kayu bakau mempunyai kegunaan luas seperti sebagai kayu api, tiang, arang kayu dan bahan samak. Their function is to provide forest wood mainly mangrove Rhizophora sp. Mangrove wood has such wide use as firewood, poles, charcoal, wood and materials Samak.

Kelas VI - Hutan Simpan Dara Class VI - Virgin Forest
Hutan ini ditanam unutk tujuan penyelidikan perhutanan. This stuff is planted forest forestry research. Aktiviti pembalakan adalah dilarang dijalankan di kawasan hutan ini. Logging activities are forbidden to be carried out in the forest. Hutan Simpan Dara Sepilok merupakan antara salah satu contoh hutan jenis ini. Virgin Sepilok Forest Reserve is one example of this type of forest.

Kelas VII - Hutan Simpan Hidupan Liar Class VII - Forest Wildlife
Hutan ini berfungsi untuk perlindungan dan penyelidikan hidupan liar. Rhinoceros sumatrana merupakan salah satu haiwan terlindung dalam hutan tersebut. Forest protection and research work for wildlife. Sumatrana Rhinoceros is one of the protected animals in the forest.

HUTAN DAN KEGUNAAN FOREST AND USE
Hutan Malaysia menghasilkan pelbagai makanan dan buah-buahan seperti petai, jering, sagu, durian dan manggis . Malaysia's forests to produce various food and fruits like petai, soaking, sago, durian and mangosteen. Di dalam hutan juga terdapat binatang buruan seperti rusa, kijang, burung punai dan ayam hutan. In the jungle animals such as deer hunting, deer, birds, pigeon and partridge. Flora dan fauna yang mempunyai "biodiversiti" yang tinggi telah menjadi makanan utama penduduk asli yang masih hidup dalam keadaan serba kekurangan. Flora and fauna that have "biodiversity" has become the main food of high natural population living in deprived circumstances.

Kayu bakau juga digunakan sebagai kayu api, tiang, arang kayu dan bahan samak. Mangrove wood is also used as firewood, poles, charcoal, wood and materials Samak. Daun pokok nipah digunakan sebagai atap rumah. Nipah leaves used as a roof. Kayu pokok ru digunakan untuk membina perahu. Ru tree wood used to build the boat. Getah poko jelutung digunakan untuk membuat gam kunyah. Poko JELUTUNG rubber used to make chewing gum.
Hutan juga berupaya menghasilkan nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Forests are also able to generate high economic value. Misalnya pokok pain dan akasia yang cepat tumbuh ditanam di kawasan pembalakan untuk menghasilkan pokok lembut bagi perusahaan membuat kertas. For example, pine and acacia trees are planted in the fast growing timber trees to produce soft for a paper company. Kertas yang dihasilkan kebanyakan dieksport ke negara-negara Eropah yang mempunyai permintaan yang tinggi terhadapnya disebabkan oleh kepesatan pembangunan industri percetakan. The paper produced is exported to many European countries that have high demand against it because of the rapid development of the printing industry.

Hutan juga menyediakan beberapa jenis tumbuhan ubat tradisional. Forests also provide several types of traditional medicine plants. Menurut kenyataan Pusat Pengesanan Pemuliharaan Dunia (World Conservation Monitoring Centre), sumber genetik tumbuhan ubat-ubatan di Malaysia baru mula dibuat penilaian. According to a statement the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (World Conservation Monitoring Centre), the genetic resources of medicinal plants in Malaysia began a new evaluation. Antara spesies yang diminati oleh penjual herba dan pengamal ubat tradisional ialah dari famili Apocynaceae , Annonaceae , Rutaceae , Dioscoreaece , Leguminosae , Lauroceae dan Zingiberaceae . Among the species of interest by the seller of herbs and traditional medicine practitioners are of the family Apocynaceae, Annonaceae, Rutaceae, Dioscoreaece, Leguminosae, Lauroceae and Zingiberaceae.
Hutan Malaysia menghasilkan kayu keras tropika, rotan dan buluh. Malaysian forest produce tropical hardwood, rattan and bamboo. Hasil-hasil ini dibuat kayu bergergaji, papan lapis, venir, dan perkakas. These findings are made of sawn timber, plywood, veneer, and furniture. Contohnya meja dan kerusi yang dihasilkan di Malaysia telah mendapat sambutan yang tinggi di luar negeri. For example tables and chairs are produced in Malaysia have received high abroad.
Keunikan pelbagai jenis fauna dan flora yang terdapat menyediakan suatu kawasan rekreasi kepada mereka yang berminat dalam pengembaraan. The uniqueness of the various types of fauna and flora which are providing a recreational area for those interested in the adventure. Apabila ramai pelancong asing melawat ke negara ini, maka secara tidak langsung ini akan menggalakkan pengaliran masuk wang ke negara kita. When the number of foreign tourists visiting the country, it will indirectly encourage the inflow of money into the country.

Hutan juga boleh menghasilkan jenis pokok non-kayu yang mempunyai nilai dan potensi ekonomi yang cukup tinggi. Forest of trees can produce non-timber value and high economic potential. Beberapa jenis hasil hutan non-kayu yang dimanfaatkan pada masa kini ialah madu, gula kawung, bambu, agar laut, kapulaga, koneng gede, laja dan pelbagai jenis tumbuhan obat. Several types of non-timber forest products are used at present is a honey, sugar kawung, even, to the sea, kapulaga, koneng girl, laja and various types of medicinal plants.
Salah satu jenis kayu keras yang berharga ialah kayu jati atau nama saintifiknya Tectona grandis telah dipindahkan dari Myanmar, Laos dan negara Thai untuk ditanam di Malaysia. One type is a valuable hardwood teak Tectona grandis or its scientific name has been removed from Myanmar, Laos and Thailand to be planted in Malaysia. Kayu jati telah mendapat sambutan yang menggalakkan di luar negara. Teak wood has been well received abroad.
Walau bagaimanapun pembalakan hutan yang meluas telah mendatangkan pelbagai kesan kepada negara ini. However, extensive forest logging have produced a variety of effects on the country. Misalnya hakisan tanah, banjir dan pencemaran air serta merosakkan tumbuhan dan habitat semulajadi haiwan. For example, soil erosion, flooding and water pollution and damage the natural habitats of plants and animals. Gangguan keseimbangan semula jadi dan saling kaitan di antara tumbuhan dengan haiwan telah memaksa binatang liar mencari makanan di kawasan pertanian dan mengakibatkan kerosakan tanaman. Disruption of natural balance and mutual relationship between plants with animals has forced wild animals searching for food in agricultural areas and cause damage to crops. Pembukaan hutan tanpa pengawasan dan kawalan boleh menyebabkan tumbuhan dan haiwan yang berguna terpupus. Clearing without supervision and control can lead to useful plants and animals terpupus. Justeru itu, Hutan Simpan dan taman negara telah diisytiharkan untuk melindungi tumbuhan dan haiwan . Therefore, the Forest Reserve and the park was declared to protect plants and animals. Taman Negara terdapat di Semenanjung Malaysia, Gunung Mulu dan Gunung Kinabalu. Taman Negara in Peninsular Malaysia, Gunung Mulu and Mount Kinabalu.

SINOPSIS SYNOPSIS
Objektif Dasar Perhutanan, 1978 adalah untuk memelihara dan mengurus hutan melalui amalan pengurusan hutan secara berkekalan serta mengekalkan peranan pentingnya dalan ekonomi negara dan kestabilan alam sekitar. The objective of the Forestry Policy, 1978 is to preserve and manage forests through sustainable forest management practices and maintaining dalan important role in the economy and environmental stability.
Secara ringkasnya, Dasar Perhutanan Negara adalah bertujuan untuk mencapai objektif berikut: In short, the National Forestry Policy is to achieve the following objectives:
· Pengwartaan Hutan Simpan Kekal · Pengwartaan Permanent Forest Reserve
Untuk memperuntukkan kawasan tanah yang mencukupi bagi Hutan Perlindungan, Hutan Berhasil, Hutan Lipur dan Hutan Pendidikan dan Penyelidikan sebagai Hutan Simpan Kekal. To provide sufficient land for forest protection, forest, Recreational and Forestry Education and Research as Permanent Forest Reserve.

· Perundangan Hutan · Forest Legislation
Untuk memastikan sumber hutan dikekal dan diuruskan secara berkekalan melalui penguatkuasaan undang-undang hutan yang cekap. To ensure that forest resources sustainably managed and maintained through the enforcement of forest laws are effective.

· Pengurusan Hutan Secara Berkekalan The Sustainable Forest Management
Untuk mengurus hutan melalui amalan prinsip pengurusan hasil secara berkekalan bagi mencapai faedah sosial, ekonomi dana alam sekitar yang maksimum. To manage the forest through the practice of revenue management principles in order to achieve sustainable social benefits, economic, environmental funds elsewhere.

· Pemeliharaan dan Pemulihan Hutan Forest Conservation and Recovery ·
Untuk meningkatkan program pembangunan hutan melalui operasi pemeliharaan dan pemuliharaan hutan berasaskan amalan-amalan silvikultur yang sesuai bagi mencapai produktiviti yang maksimum. To enhance the program through the development of forest operations on forest conservation and silvicultural practices appropriate to achieve maximum productivity.

· Pengusahasilan Hutan · Forest
Untuk menggalakkan cara-cara pengusahasilan hutan yang cekap melalui rancangan pengurusan dan pengusahasilan hutan yang ditetapkan bagi penghasilan keluaran hutan secara berkekalan. To promote methods of forest exploitation through its efficient management and exploitation of forest designated for production of forest products in perpetuity.

· Keluaran dan Industri Hutan · Products and Forest Industry
Untuk mencapai keseimbangan yang rasional antara kapasiti keupayaan industri pemprosesan dengan bekalan sumber hutan. To achieve a rational balance between the capacity of the industry's ability to supply the processing of forest resources.

· Ladang Hutan · Forest Farm
Untuk menubuh dan menguruskan ladang hutan bagi menampung bekalan kayu balak dari kawasan hutan asli serta menggalakkan pelaburan sektor swasta yang aktif dalam penubuhan dan pembangunan ladang hutan. To establish and manage forest plantations to meet the timber supply from natural forests and encouraging private sector investment, which is active in the establishment and development of forest plantations.

· Pengeluaran Hutan Bukan Kayu • Issuance of Non-Wood Forest
Untuk meningkatkan keluaran hutan bukan kayu bagi menampung permintaan tempatan serta keperluan industri pemprosesan yang berkaitan. To increase non-timber forest products to meet local demand and needs related to the processing industry.

· Penyelidikan Perhutanan Forestry Research ·
Untuk menggalakkan sektor awam dan swasta dalam perlaksanaan semua aspek penyelidikan perhutanan. To encourage public and private sectors in the implementation of all aspects of forestry research.

· Pembangunan Tenaga Manusia dan Latihan · Manpower Development and Training
Untuk menambah bilangan tenaga manusia yang terlatih bagi menampung keperluan perhutanan dan industri berasaskan kayu. To increase the number of trained manpower to meet the needs of forestry and timber industry.

Tuesday, April 27, 2010